The Paris Agreement And Beyond International Climate Change Policy Post-2020

Although the agreement has an innovative and potentially effective political architecture, much remains to be done to develop the agreement – to formulate the many necessary rules and directions and to define more precise means of implementation. Governments, other stakeholders and researchers must also consider limits to the effectiveness of the Paris Agreement – and identify organizations and processes that could complement the agreement and the broader UNFCCC process. At the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP 19) 2013 in Warsaw, the parties agreed to launch or intensify national preparations for their “planned national contributions” (INDC) to the agreement and to communicate them in a timely manner before COP21 in Paris in December 2015. These INDCs define the mitigation commitments that countries intend to propose for the post-2020 period. This decision can be seen as a major step forward for developing countries, many of which are developing climate change plans or goals for the first time or communicating internationally. It also explains why the parties are reluctant to agree on a common format in which these INDCs should be presented, or on the type of objectives or actions they should contain. Whether NDCs should cover only reduction or adaptation and funding remains controversial. The parties were also unable to agree on the type of contribution to the reduction to be put in place, i.e. macroeconomic emission reduction targets, emission intensity targets, climate change measures, etc. It will also enable the contracting parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. In addition, India, in a state of evolving attitude, finally announced on 1 October 2015 its long-awaited binding posts – the 2020 target – by submitting its INDC to the secretariat of the UNFCCC 30.

India intends to reduce its GDP emissions intensity by 33% by 2030 to 35% below 2005 levels. increase the share of non-fossil production capacity to 40% of installed production capacity by 2030 (26-30% of production by 2030) and create an additional (cumulative) carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 GtCO2e by 2030 through additional cover of forests and trees. According to the CAT INDCs Assessment, India`s presentation is considered “average,” indicating that India`s climate plans are the least ambitious end to what would be a fair contribution and would not be compatible with limiting warming to less than 2oC, unless other countries make much larger reductions and comparatively greater efforts32. The Katowice package adopted at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP24) in December 2018 contains common and detailed rules, procedures and guidelines that affect the Paris agreement in the operation.

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